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Electrochemical Performance of Large-Grained NaCrO2 Cathode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries Synthesized by Decomposition of Na2Cr2O7·2H2O

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journal contribution
posted on 18.06.2019, 00:00 authored by Yong Wang, Wei Li, Guorong Hu, Zhongdong Peng, Yanbing Cao, Hongcai Gao, Ke Du, John B. Goodenough
The solid-state reaction has been widely employed as the standard procedure to prepare oxide cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. However, it involves multiple steps and consumes much energy. In this work, we report a facile method to synthesize a large-grained O3–NaCrO2 cathode by directly reducing sodium dichromate dihydrate (Na2Cr2O7·2H2O) under a hydrogen atmosphere. Owing to its unique large particle morphology, the as-prepared NaCrO2 exhibits a high tap density of 2.55 g cm–3. The compact NaCrO2 shows excellent electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity of 123 mAh g–1 at 0.1C, a high capacity retention of 88.2% after 500 cycles at 2C, and an outstanding rate capability of 68 mAh g–1 at 20C. The performance is attributed to a stable structure from the distinctive morphology with small specific surface area to suppress interfacial side reactions and rapid Na-ion diffusion channels with a highly (110)-oriented crystal structure. Ex situ X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry tests demonstrate the consecutive and reversible phase transition mechanism with facile Na+ migration. Importantly, the obtained cathode material exhibits an excellent performance in sodium-ion full cells with hard carbon as the anode.