American Chemical Society
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Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Enabled by Low Temperature Processed Ternary Metal Oxide as Electron Transport Interlayer with Large Stoichiometry Window

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-06-03, 00:00 authored by Wei Lin Leong, Yi Ren, Hwee Leng Seng, Zihao Huang, Sing Yang Chiam, Ananth Dodabalapur
Highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells are demonstrated by incorporating low temperature solution processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) as cathode interlayers. The IZOs are synthesized using a combustion synthesis method, which enables low temperature processes (150–250 °C). We investigated the IZO films with different electron mobilities (1.4 × 10–3 to 0.23 cm2/(V·s)), hydroxide–oxide content (38% to 47%), and surface roughness (0.19–5.16 nm) by modulating the ternary metal oxide stoichiometry. The photovoltaic performance was found to be relatively insensitive to the composition ratio of In:Zn over the range of 0.8:0.2 to 0.5:0.5 despite the differences in their electrical and surface properties, achieving high power conversion efficiencies of 6.61%–7.04%. Changes in composition ratio of IZO do not lead to obvious differences in energy levels, diode parameters and morphology of the photoactive layer, as revealed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), dark current analysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements, correlating well with the large IZO stoichiometry window that enables efficient photovoltaic devices. Our results demonstrate the robustness of this ETL system and provide a convenient approach to realize a wide range of multicomponent oxides and compatible with processing on flexible plastic substrates.