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Effects of Simulated Smog Atmospheres in Rodent Models of Metabolic and Immunologic Dysfunction

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journal contribution
posted on 31.01.2018, 00:00 by Marie McGee Hargrove, Samantha J. Snow, Robert W. Luebke, Charles E. Wood, Jonathan D. Krug, Q. Todd Krantz, Charly King, Carey B. Copeland, Shaun D. McCullough, Kymberly M. Gowdy, Urmila P. Kodavanti, M. Ian Gilmour, Stephen H. Gavett
Air pollution is a diverse and dynamic mixture of gaseous and particulate matter, limiting our understanding of associated adverse health outcomes. The biological effects of two simulated smog atmospheres (SA) with different compositions but similar air quality health indexes were compared in a nonobese diabetic rat model (Goto-Kakizaki, GK) and three mouse immune models (house dust mite (HDM) allergy, antibody response to heat-killed pneumococcus, and resistance to influenza A infection). In GK rats, both SA-PM (high particulate matter) and SA-O3 (high ozone) decreased cholesterol levels immediately after a 4-h exposure, whereas only SA-O3 increased airflow limitation. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was increased in HDM-allergic mice compared with nonallergic mice, but exposure to SA-PM or SA-O3 did not significantly alter responsiveness. Exposure to SA-PM did not affect the IgM response to pneumococcus, and SA-O3 did not affect virus titers, although inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in mice infected at the end of a 7-day exposure. Collectively, acute SA exposures produced limited health effects in animal models of metabolic and immune diseases. Effects of SA-O3 tended to be greater than those of SA-PM, suggesting that gas-phase components in photochemically derived multipollutant mixtures may be of greater concern than secondary organic aerosol PM.