Effects of Cerium Oxide and Ferrocene Nanoparticles Addition As Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: Environmental and Health Implications
journal contributionposted on 27.03.2017, 00:00 by Zhi-Hui Zhang, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
This study systematically examined the potential impacts of doping CeO2 and Fe(C5H5)2 nanoparticles as fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) to ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel on the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM). The FBCs-doped fuels are effective in promoting soot oxidation and reducing the DPM mass emissions, but lead to a significant increase in the total particle counts due to the formation of self-nucleated metallic nanoparticles. Compared to undoped ULSD, the FBCs-doped fuels result in higher concentrations of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes, higher fractions of organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in particles, show slight alterations in soot nanostructure, reduce soot ignition temperature and activation energy. Exposure of the human-type II cell alveolar epithelial cells (A549) to DPM derived from FBCs-doped fuels shows a decrease in cell viability and alterations in the global gene expression with a broad range of biochemical pathways. The overall variations in DPM characteristics are mainly caused by the catalytic combustion process, and are related to the type, properties and contents of FBCs used in diesel fuel as well as the engine operating conditions. Environmental and health implications of the study are highlighted.