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Effect of Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins Modification with Polyethylene Glycol on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

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journal contribution
posted on 15.11.2017, 00:00 by Dan Li, Maria V. Fawaz, Emily E. Morin, Ran Ming, Denis Sviridov, Jie Tang, Rose Ackermann, Karl Olsen, Alan T. Remaley, Anna Schwendeman
Synthetic high density lipoprotein nanoparticles (sHDLs) capable of mobilizing excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic arteries and delivering it to the liver for elimination have been shown to reduce plaque burden in patients. Unfortunately, sHDLs have a narrow therapeutic index and relative to the endogenous HDL shorter circulation half-life. Surface modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) was investigated for its potential to extend sHDL circulation in vivo. Various amounts (2.5, 5, and 10%) and different chain lengths (2 and 5 kDa) of PEG-modified lipids were incorporated in sHDL’s lipid membrane. Incorporating PEG did not reduce the ability of sHDL to facilitate cholesterol efflux, nor did it inhibit cholesterol uptake by the liver cells. By either adding more PEG or using PEG of longer chain lengths, the circulation half-life was extended. Addition of PEG also increased the area under the curve for the phospholipid component of sHDL (p < 0.05), but not for the apolipoprotein A-I peptide component of sHDL, suggesting sHDL is remodeled by endogenous lipoproteins in vivo. The extended phospholipid circulation led to a higher mobilization of plasma free cholesterol, a biomarker for facilitation of reverse cholesterol transport. The area under the cholesterol mobilization increased about 2–4-fold (p < 0.05), with greater increases observed for longer PEG chains and higher molar percentages of incorporated PEGylated lipids. Mobilized cholesterol was associated primarily with the HDL fraction, led to a transient increase in VLDL cholesterol, and returned to baseline 24 h postdose. Overall, PEGylation of sHDL led to beneficial changes in sHDL particle pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviors.