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Divalent Osmium Complexes:  Synthesis, Characterization, Strong Red Phosphorescence, and Electrophosphorescence

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journal contribution
posted on 01.11.2002, 00:00 by Brenden Carlson, Gregory D. Phelan, Werner Kaminsky, Larry Dalton, Xuezhong Jiang, Sen Liu, Alex K.-Y. Jen
We report new divalent osmium complexes that feature strong red metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) phosphorescence and electrophosphorescence. The general formula of the complexes is Os(II)(N−N)2L−L, where N−N is either a bipyridine or a phenanthroline and L−L is either a phosphine or an arsine. New polypyridyl ligands synthesized are 4,4‘-di(biphenyl)-2,2‘-bipyridine (15) and 4,4‘-di(diphenyl ether)-2,2‘-bipyridine (16), and the 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives synthesized are 4,7-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (17), 4,7-bis(p-bromophenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (18), 4,7-bis(4‘-phenoxybiphen-4-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline (19), and 4,7-bis(4-naphth-2-ylphenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (20). 4,4‘-Diphenyl-2,2‘-bipyridine (21) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (22) were also used in these studies. Strong π-acid ligands used were 1,2-bis(diphenylarseno)ethane (23), cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene (24), and cis-1,2-vinylenebis(diphenylarsine) (25). Ligand 25 is used for the first time in these types of luminescent osmium complexes. These compounds feature strong MLCT absorption bands in the visible region and strong red phosphorescent emission ranging from 611 to 651 nm, with quantum efficiency up to 45% in ethanol solution at room temperature. Red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were successfully fabricated by doping the Os(II) complexes into blend of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Brightness over 1400 cd/m2 for a double-layer device has been reached, with a turn-on voltage of 8 V. The maximum external quantum efficiency was 0.64%. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x, y) of the red electrophosphorescence from the complexes are (0.65, 0.34), which indicates pure red emission.