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Discovery of the First Irreversible Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Interaction between the Vitamin D Receptor and Coactivators

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journal contribution
posted on 24.05.2012, 00:00 by Premchendar Nandhikonda, Wen Z. Lynt, Megan M. McCallum, Tahniyath Ara, Athena M. Baranowski, Nina Y. Yuan, Dana Pearson, Daniel D. Bikle, R. Kiplin Guy, Leggy A. Arnold
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and calcium homeostasis. The receptor is activated by vitamin D analogues that induce the disruption of VDR–corepressor binding and promote VDR–coactivator interactions. The interactions between VDR and coregulators are essential for VDR-mediated transcription. Small molecule inhibition of VDR–coregulator binding represents an alternative method to the traditional ligand-based approach in order to modulate the expression of VDR target genes. A high throughput fluorescence polarization screen that quantifies the inhibition of binding between VDR and a fluorescently labeled steroid receptor coactivator 2 peptide was applied to discover the new small molecule VDR–coactivator inhibitors, 3-indolylmethanamines. Structure–activity relationship studies with 3-indolylmethanamine analogues were used to determine their mode of VDR-binding and to produce the first VDR-selective and irreversible VDR–coactivator inhibitors with the ability to regulate the transcription of the human VDR target gene TRPV6.