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Direct Laser Writing of δ- to α‑Phase Transformation in Formamidinium Lead Iodide

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journal contribution
posted on 01.08.2017, 00:00 by Julian A. Steele, Haifeng Yuan, Collin Y. X. Tan, Masoumeh Keshavarz, Christian Steuwe, Maarten B. J. Roeffaers, Johan Hofkens
Organolead halide perovskites are increasingly considered for applications well beyond photovoltaics, for example, as the active regions within photonic devices. Herein, we report the direct laser writing (DLW: 458 nm cw-laser) of the formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) yellow δ-phase into its high-temperature luminescent black α-phase, a remarkably easy and scalable approach that takes advantage of the material’s susceptibility to transition under ambient conditions. Through the DLW of α-FAPbI3 tracks on δ-FAPbI3 single-crystal surfaces, the controlled and rapid microfabrication of highly luminescent structures exhibiting long-term phase stability is detailed, offering an avenue toward the prototyping of complex perovskite-based optical devices. The dynamics and kinetics of laser-induced δ- to α-phase transformations are investigated in situ by Raman microprobe analysis, as a function of irradiation power, time, temperature, and atmospheric conditions, revealing an interesting connection between oxygen intercalation at the surface and the δ- to α-phase transformation dynamics, an insight that will find application within the wider context of FAPbI3 thermal phase relations.