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Development of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Aldo–Keto Reductase 1C3 (Type 5 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase) Based on N-Phenyl-Aminobenzoates and Their Structure–Activity Relationships

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journal contribution
posted on 08.03.2012, 00:00 by Adegoke O. Adeniji, Barry M. Twenter, Michael C. Byrns, Yi Jin, Mo Chen, Jeffrey D. Winkler, Trevor M. Penning
Aldo–keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3; type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) is overexpressed in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and is implicated in the intratumoral biosynthesis of testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Selective AKR1C3 inhibitors are required because compounds should not inhibit the highly related AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 isoforms which are involved in the inactivation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. NSAIDs, N-phenylanthranilates in particular, are potent but nonselective AKR1C3 inhibitors. Using flufenamic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)­phenyl]­amino}­benzoic acid, as lead compound, five classes of structural analogues were synthesized and evaluated for AKR1C3 inhibitory potency and selectivity. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that a meta-carboxylic acid group relative to the amine conferred pronounced AKR1C3 selectivity without loss of potency, while electron withdrawing groups on the phenylamino B-ring were optimal for AKR1C3 inhibition. Lead compounds did not inhibit COX-1 or COX-2 but blocked the AKR1C3 mediated production of testosterone in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. These compounds offer promising leads toward new therapeutics for CRPC.