American Chemical Society
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Development of Hybrid Pseudohalide Tin Perovskites for Highly Stable Carbon-Electrode Solar Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-04-28, 16:45 authored by Mohammad Rameez, Eric Yan-Ru Lin, Putikam Raghunath, Sudhakar Narra, Donghoon Song, Ming-Chang Lin, Chen-Hsiung Hung, Eric Wei-Guang Diau
Tin-based perovskites degrade rapidly upon interaction with water and oxygen in air because Sn–I bonds are weak. To address this issue, we developed novel tin perovskites, FASnI(3–x)(SCN)x (x = 0, 1, 2, or 3), by employing a pseudohalide, thiocyanate (SCN), as a replacement for halides and as an inhibitor to suppress the Sn2+/Sn4+ oxidation. The structural and electronic properties of pseudohalide tin perovskites in this series were explored with quantum-chemical calculations by employing the plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) method; the corresponding results are consistent with the experimental results. Carbon-based perovskite devices fabricated with tin perovskite FASnI­(SCN)2 showed about a threefold enhancement of the device efficiency (2.4%) relative to that of the best FASnI3-based device (0.9%), which we attribute to the improved suppression of the formation of Sn4+, retarded charge recombination, enhanced hydrophobicity, and stronger interactions between Sn and thiocyanate for FASnI­(SCN)2 than those for FASnI3. After the incorporation of phenylethyleneammonium iodide (PEAI, 10%) and ethylenediammonium diiodide (EDAI2, 5%) as coadditives, the FASnI­(SCN)2 device gave the best photovoltaic performance with JSC = 20.17 mA cm–2, VOC = 322 mV, fill factor (FF) = 0.574, and overall efficiency of power conversion PCE = 3.7%. Moreover, these pseudohalide-containing devices display negligible photocurrent–voltage hysteresis and great stability in ambient air conditions.