American Chemical Society
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Developing Antibacterial Nanocrystalline Cellulose Using Natural Antibacterial Agents

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journal contribution
posted on 2018-09-12, 00:00 authored by Mandana Tavakolian, Mira Okshevsky, Theo G. M. van de Ven, Nathalie Tufenkji
We used hairy nanocrystalline cellulose functionalized with aldehyde groups, otherwise known as sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (SNCC), to facilitate the attachment of the antibacterial agents lysozyme and nisin. Immobilization was achieved using a simple, green process that does not require any linker or activator. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed successful attachment of both nisin and lysozyme onto the SNCC. The efficacy of the conjugated nanocellulose against the model bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was tested in terms of bacterial growth, cell viability, and biofilm formation/removal. The results show that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the conjugated nanocellulose is higher than that of lysozyme and nisin in free form, which was expected given that immobilization reduces the possible spatial orientations of these proteins. We observed that free nisin is not active against S. aureus after 24 h of exposure due to either deactivation of free nisin or development of resistance in S. aureus against free nisin. Interestingly, we did not observe this phenomenon when the bacteria were exposed to antibacterials immobilized on nanocellulose, suggesting that immobilization of antibacterial agents onto SNCC effectively retains their activity over long time periods. We suggest that antibacterial SNCC is a promising candidate for the development of antibacterial wound dressings.