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Dependence of the Reduction Products of Platinum(IV) Prodrugs upon the Configuration of the Substrate, Bulk of the Carrier Ligands, and Nature of the Reducing Agent

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journal contribution
posted on 17.09.2012, 00:00 by Marilù Sinisi, Francesco P. Intini, Giovanni Natile
Most evidence indicates that platinum­(IV) prodrugs are rapidly reduced under physiological conditions by biologically relevant reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione; however, the precise mechanisms of reduction are not fully understood, thus preventing rational design of compounds with better pharmacological properties. In the present study, reduction of three all-trans platinum­(IV) compounds of formula [PtCl2(CH3COO)2LL′] (LL′ = {E-HNC­(CH3)­OCH3}2, 1c, (H3N)­(cyclohexylamine), 2c, and (H3N)­(1-adamantylamine), 3c) by two biologically relevant reductants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) and by a classical coordination chemistry reductant (triphenylphosphine) has been investigated. Reduction by triphenylphosphine and glutathione leads, in all cases examined, to loss of the two chlorides and formation of the diacetato species trans-[Pt­(CH3COO)2LL′]. This is in accord with an “inner-sphere” redox process in which a chlorido ligand bridges the reductant with the platinum­(IV) center. In contrast, reduction by ascorbic acid/sodium ascorbate 1:1 leads, in addition to the diacetato complex, also to formation of a significant amount of dichlorido species, particularly in the case of 1c (31%) and to a lesser extent of 3c (16%). The latter results indicate that ascorbic acid is less efficient to promote an inner-sphere redox process (attack on a chlorido ligand), therefore allowing participation of an “outer-sphere” mechanism, ultimately leading to formation of the more stable dichlorido species. The dependence of the yield of diacetato species upon the steric hindrance of the carrier ligand (69%, 84%, and 95% for 1c, 3c, and 2c, respectively) points to the possible participation of a second type of inner-sphere mechanism in which the interaction between the ascorbate and a chlorido ligand of the platinum­(IV) substrate is mediated by a platinum­(II) catalyst, the transition state resembling that of a platinum­(II)-catalyzed ligand substitution at a platinum­(IV) center. This investigation demonstrates that different species can be obtained by reduction of a platinum­(IV) prodrug (depending upon the configuration of the substrate and the nature of the intervening reducing agent) and can explain some lack of correlation between prodrug and putative active species as well as contrasting literature results.