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Degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Sulfidated Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron in a Dynamic Two-Step Anoxic/Oxic Process

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journal contribution
posted on 22.05.2019, 00:00 by Jun Wu, Jian Zhao, Jun Hou, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng, Baoshan Xing
A dynamic two-step anoxic/oxic process using sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) was employed to degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). In the anoxic stage, TBBPA followed a four-step sequential debromination pathway and was completely transformed to bisphenol A (BPA) with the optimal S/Fe molar ratio of 0.3. S-nZVI inhibited H2 evolution and preserved the reducing capacity of Fe(0). Fe(0), rather than the formed FeS in S-nZVI, was responsible for TBBPA debromination. In the oxic stage, the product BPA was attacked by OH, transformed to dihydroxybenzenes and benzoquinones, and eventually, achieved mineralization via ring-opening reactions. The sulfidation process facilitated OH production through a two-electron transfer pathway by surface-bound Fe­(II), in which structural Fe­(II) in FeS and regenerated Fe­(II) from Fe­(III) reduction by Fe(0) played significant roles toward total BPA degradation. S-nZVI was transformed to S8 and α-FeOOH after the oxic treatment. After these two steps, complete degradation of TBBPA was achieved. This study demonstrated the feasibility that refractory contaminants could be completely degraded in the dynamic two-step anoxic/oxic process, thus broadening the utility of S-nZVI for environmental applications in water treatment.