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Decalin-Containing Tetramic Acids and 4‑Hydroxy-2-pyridones with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity from the Fungus Coniochaeta cephalothecoides Collected in Tibetan Plateau (Medog)

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posted on 11.10.2017, 00:00 by Junjie Han, Congcong Liu, Li Li, Hui Zhou, Li Liu, Li Bao, Qian Chen, Fuhang Song, Lixin Zhang, Erwei Li, Ling Liu, Yunfei Pei, Cheng Jin, Yanfen Xue, Wenbing Yin, Yanhe Ma, Hongwei Liu
New tetramic acid derivatives, (±)-conipyridoins A–D (14), conipyridoins E (5) and F (6), and new 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloids (±)-didymellamide E (7), (+)-didymellamide B (8), (+)-N-hydroxyapiosporamide (9), and didymellamides F–H (1012) were isolated and identified from the solid culture of the fungus Coniochaeta cephalothecoides. Chiral resolution of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 gave five pairs of enantiomers: 1a/1b, 2a/2b, 3a/3b, 4a/4b, and 7a/7b, respectively. Stereochemistry of 1a and 1b, and 2a and 2b was established and confirmed by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) methods. Absolute configuration in 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 7a, and 7b was assigned by ECD calculations. Compounds 16 possess an unprecedented chemical skeleton featuring a decalin ring and a tetramic acid moiety. Compound 11 significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.13 and 1.56 μM, respectively, and was further confirmed to be a new chitin synthesis inhibitor. Compound 5 exhibited the strongest activity against the growth of both Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with MIC value of 0.97 μM. In the light of a co-occurrence of 3-acyl tetramic acids and biogenetically related pyridine alkaloids, the biosynthetic pathway for 112 was postulated.

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