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Deamidation at Asparagine and Glutamine As a Major Modification upon Deterioration/Aging of Proteinaceous Binders in Mural Paintings

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journal contribution
posted on 15.03.2011, 00:00 by Gabriella Leo, Ilaria Bonaduce, Alessia Andreotti, Gennaro Marino, Pietro Pucci, Maria Perla Colombini, Leila Birolo
Proteomic strategies are herein proved to be a complementary approach to the well established amino acid composition analysis for the characterization of the aging and deterioration phenomena occurring to proteinaceous materials in works-of-art. Amino acid analyses on several samples demonstrated that proteins in the frescoes from the Camposanto Monumentale in Pisa are deteriorated as revealed by the decrease in Met, Lys, and Tyr content and by the presence in all the samples of amino malonic acid as a result of Ser, Phe, and Cys oxidation. Proteomic analysis identified deamidation at Asn and Gln as a further major event occurred. This work paves the way to the exploitation of proteomic strategies for the investigation of the molecular effects of aging and deterioration in historical objects. Results show that proteomic searches for deamidation by liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS/MS) could constitute a routine analysis for paintings or any artistic and historic objects where proteins are present. Peptides that can be used as molecular markers when casein is present were identified.