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Data-Driven Derivation of Molecular Substructures That Enhance Drug Activity in Gram-Negative Bacteria

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-04-15, 18:07 authored by Dominik Gurvic, Andrew G. Leach, Ulrich Zachariae
The complex cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria creates a formidable barrier to antibiotic influx. Reduced drug uptake impedes drug development and contributes to a wide range of drug-resistant bacterial infections, including those caused by extremely resistant species prioritized by the World Health Organization. To develop new and efficient treatments, a better understanding of the molecular features governing Gram-negative permeability is essential. Here, we present a data-driven approach, using matched molecular pair analysis and machine learning on minimal inhibitory concentration data from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to uncover chemical features that influence Gram-negative bioactivity. We find recurring chemical moieties, of a wider range than previously known, that consistently improve activity and suggest that this insight can be used to optimize compounds for increased Gram-negative uptake. Our findings may help to expand the chemical space of broad-spectrum antibiotics and aid the search for new antibiotic compound classes.