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Crystallization of Carbamazepine Pseudopolymorphs from Nonionic Microemulsions

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journal contribution
posted on 05.02.2008, 00:00 by Anna Kogan, Inna Popov, Vladimir Uvarov, Shmuel Cohen, Abraham Aserin, Nissim Garti
Crystallization of carbamazepine (CBZ), an antiepileptic drug, precipitated from confined spaces of nonionic microemulsions was investigated. The study was aimed to correlate the structure of the microemulsion [water-in-oil (W/O), bicontinuous, and oil-in-water (O/W)] with the crystalline structure and morphology of solid CBZ. The precipitated CBZ was studied by DSC, TGA, powder XRD, single-crystal XRD, SEM, and optical microscopy. The results suggest that the microstructure of the microemulsions influences the crystallization process and allows crystallizing polymorphs that exhibit different crystal structure and habits. W/O nanodroplets orient the crystallizing CBZ molecules to form a prismlike anhydrous polymorphic form with monoclinic unit cell and P21/n space group. Bicontinuous structures lead to platelike dihydrate crystals with orthorhombic unit cell and Cmca space group. The O/W nanodroplets cause the formation of needlelike dihydrate crystals with monoclinic unit cell and P21/c space group. The morphological features of solid CBZ remain predetermined by the basic symmetry and parameters of its unit cell. Precipitation of CBZ pseudopolymorphs from supersaturated microemulsion is discussed in terms of oriented attachment that provides perfect packing of numerous separately nucleated ordered nuclei of CBZ into microscale platelets and then into macroscopic crystals. Crystallization from microemulsion media enabling one to obtain the drug (CBZ) with predicted structure and morphology should be of great significance for pharmaceutical applications.