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Cryptic Oxidative Transamination of Hydroxynaphthoquinone in Natural Product Biosynthesis

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-16, 13:39 authored by Tomohiro Noguchi, Shota Isogai, Tohru Terada, Makoto Nishiyama, Tomohisa Kuzuyama
Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes are a group of versatile enzymes that catalyze various reactions, but only a small number of them react with O2. Here, we report an unprecedented PLP-dependent enzyme, NphE, that catalyzes both transamination and two-electron oxidation using O2 as an oxidant. Our intensive analysis reveals that NphE transfers the l-glutamate-derived amine to 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene-derived mompain to form 8-amino-flaviolin (8-AF) via a highly conjugated quinonoid intermediate that is reactive with O2. During the NphE reaction, O2 is reduced to yield H2O2. An integrated technique involving NphE structure prediction by AlphaFold v2.0 and molecular dynamics simulation suggested the O2-accessible cavity. Our in vivo results demonstrated that 8-AF is a genuine biosynthetic intermediate for the 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene-derived meroterpenoid naphterpin without an amino group, which was supported by site-directed mutagenesis. This study clearly establishes the NphE reaction product 8-AF as a common intermediate with a cryptic amino group for the biosynthesis of terpenoid–polyketide hybrid natural products.