American Chemical Society
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Criteria Air Pollutant and Greenhouse Gases Emissions from U.S. Refineries Allocated to Refinery Products

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-05-03, 00:00 authored by Pingping Sun, Ben Young, Amgad Elgowainy, Zifeng Lu, Michael Wang, Ben Morelli, Troy Hawkins
Using Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program data (GHGRP) and National Emissions Inventory data from 2014, we investigate U.S. refinery greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria air pollutant (CAP) emissions (VOC, CO, NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5). The study derives (1) combustion emission factors (EFs) of refinery fuels (e.g., refinery catalyst coke and refinery combined gas), (2) U.S. refinery GHG emissions and CAP emissions per crude throughput at the national and regional levels, and (3) GHG and CAP emissions attributable to U.S. refinery products. The latter two emissions were further itemized by source: combustion emission, process emission, and facility-wide emission. We estimated U.S. refinery product GHG and CAP emissions via energy allocation at the refinery process unit level. The unit energy demand and unit flow information were adopted from the Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM version 1.1) by fitting individual U.S. refineries. This study fills an important information gap because it (1) evaluates refinery CAP emissions along with GHG emissions and (2) provides CAP and GHG emissions not only for refinery main products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.) but also for refinery secondary products (asphalt, lubricant, wax, light olefins, etc.).