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Correlation between Glyoxal-Induced DNA Cross-Links and Hemoglobin Modifications in Human Blood Measured by Mass Spectrometry

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journal contribution
posted on 03.12.2018, 00:00 by Hauh-Jyun Candy Chen, Chun-Ting Liu, Yi-Jou Li
Glyoxal is an oxoaldehyde generated from the degradation of glucose-protein conjugates and from lipid peroxidation in foods and in vivo, and it is also present in the environment (e.g., cigarette smoke). The major endogenous source of glyoxal is glucose autoxidation, and the glyoxal concentrations in plasma are higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics. Glyoxal reacts with biomolecules forming covalently modified DNA and protein adducts. We previously developed sensitive and specific assays based on nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) for quantification of DNA cross-linked adducts (dG-gx-dC and dG-gx-dA) and for hemoglobin adducts derived from glyoxal. In this study, we isolated and analyzed both leukocyte DNA and hemoglobin from the blood of diabetic patients and compared the adduct levels with those from nondiabetic subjects using the modified assays. The results indicated that the extents of glyoxal-induced hemoglobin modifications on α-Lys-11, α-Arg-92, β-Lys-17, and β-Lys-66 were statistically higher in diabetic patients than nondiabetics and they correlated with HbA1c significantly. Moreover, the levels of dG-gx-dC in leukocyte DNA correlated positively with the extents of globin modification at α-Lys-11 and β-Lys-17, while levels of dG-gx-dA correlated with those at α-Lys-11 and α-Arg-92 in nonsmoking subjects. Comparing the levels and the correlation coefficients of these hemoglobin and DNA adducts including or excluding smokers, it appears that smoking is not a major contributor to glyoxal-induced adduction of hemoglobin and leukocyte DNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few reports of positive correlation between DNA and protein adducts of the same compound (glyoxal) in the blood from the same subjects. Because of the high abundance of hemoglobin in blood, the results indicate that quantification of glyoxal-modified peptides in hemoglobin might serve as a dosimetry for glyoxal and a practical surrogate biomarker for assessing glyoxal-induced DNA damage and its prevention.