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Copper Speciation Evolution in Swine Manure Induced by Pyrolysis

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journal contribution
posted on 29.06.2020, 12:36 by Yuan Cheng, Lei Luo, Jitao Lv, Gang Li, Bei Wen, Yibing Ma, Rixiang Huang
Swine manures generally contain high levels of copper (Cu) resulting from its use as a growth promoter in feedstuff. Pyrolysis can further concentrate Cu whereas decrease its available fraction in swine manures. Here we investigated the speciation transformation of Cu and associated elements in swine manures induced by pyrolysis using multiple X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Results showed that over 82% of Cu existed as Cu­(I)–S and Cu­(I)–thiolate complexes in swine manures, which were transformed into stable Cu­(I)2S during pyrolysis at a low temperature of 300 °C and partially oxidized and desulfurized into Cu­(II) compounds at a high temperature of 500 °C. The speciation evolution of Cu in swine manures was consistent with the speciation distribution of sulfur in feedstuff and its following changes in swine manures during pyrolysis. About 58% of phosphorus existed as CaHPO4 and struvite in swine manures, which were gradually transformed into stable Ca-bound species such as hydroxyapatite during pyrolysis. The formation of stable phosphate, together with concentrated carbonates, significantly decreased the available Cu in pyrolyzed manures. These findings suggested that the high levels of S and P in feedstuff profoundly affected the speciation of Cu in the swine manures and derived biochars. This study has important implications to our understanding of the behaviors of heavy metals in manure-derived biochars once entering soil environments.