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Controlling Covalency and Anion Redox Potentials through Anion Substitution in Li-Rich Chalcogenides

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journal contribution
posted on 30.12.2020, 17:36 by Andrew J. Martinolich, Joshua J. Zak, David N. Agyeman-Budu, Seong Shik Kim, Nicholas H. Bashian, Ahamed Irshad, Sri R. Narayan, Brent C. Melot, Johanna Nelson Weker, Kimberly A. See
Development of next-generation battery technologies is imperative in the pursuit of a clean energy future. Toward that end, battery chemistries capable of multielectron redox processes are at the forefront of studies on Li-based systems to increase the gravimetric capacity of the cathode. Multielectron processes rely either on the iterative redox of transition metal cations or redox involving both the transition metal cations and the anionic framework. Targeting coupled cation and anion redox to achieve multielectron charge storage is difficult, however, because the structure–property relationships that govern reversibility are poorly understood. In an effort to develop fundamental understanding of anion redox, we have developed a materials family that displays tunable anion redox over a range of potentials that are dependent on a systematic modification of the stoichiometry. We report anion redox in the chalcogenide solid solution Li2FeS2–ySey, wherein the mixing of the sulfide and selenide anions yields a controllable shift in the high voltage oxidation plateau. Electrochemical measurements indicate that reversible multielectron redox occurs across the solid solution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy supports the oxidation of both iron and selenium at high states of charge, while Raman spectroscopy indicates the formation of Se–Se dimers in Li2FeSe2 upon Li deintercalation, providing insight into the charge mechanism of the Li-rich iron chalcogenides. Anion substitution presents direct control over the functional properties of multielectron redox materials for next generation battery technologies.

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