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Conformational States of ADP Ribosylation Factor 1 Complexed with Different Guanosine Triphosphates As Studied by 31P NMR Spectroscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 2011-07-26, 00:00 authored by Tanja Meierhofer, Maren Eberhardt, Michael Spoerner
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (GNB-proteins) play an essential role in cellular signaling, acting as molecular switches, cycling between the inactive, GDP-bound form and the active, GTP-bound form. It has been shown that conformational equilibria also exist within the active form of GNB-proteins between conformational states with different functional properties. Here we present 31P NMR data on ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), a GNB-protein involved in Golgi traffic, promoting the coating of secretory vesicles. To investigate conformational equilibria in active Arf1, the wild type and switch I mutants complexed with GTP and a variety of commonly used GTP analogues, namely, GppCH2p, GppNHp, and GTPγS, were analyzed. To gain deeper insight into the conformational state of active Arf1, we titrated with Cu2+-cyclen and GdmCl and formed the complex with the Sec7 domain of nucleotide exchange factor ARNO and an effector GAT domain. In contrast to the related proteins Ras, Ral, Cdc42, and Ran, from 31P NMR spectroscopic view, Arf1 exists predominantly in a single conformation independent of the GTP analogue used. This state seems to correspond to the so-called state 2(T) conformation, according to Ras nomenclature, which is interacting with the effector domain. The exchange of the highly conserved threonine in position 48 with alanine led to a shift of the equilibrium toward a conformational state with typical properties obtained for state 1(T) in Ras, such as interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors, a lower affinity for nucleoside triphosphates, and greater sensitivity to chaotropic agents. In active Arf1(wt), the effector interacting conformation is strongly favored. These intrinsic conformational equilibria of active GNB-proteins could be a fine-tuning mechanism of regulation and thereby an interesting target for the modulation of protein activity.

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