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Competitive Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes onto and into Pellicle-Coated Hydroxyapatite Investigated by QCM‑D and Force Spectroscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 23.03.2017, 00:00 by Hyun-Su Lee, Carl Myers, Lynette Zaidel, Prathima C. Nalam, Matthew A. Caporizzo, Carlo A. Daep, David M. Eckmann, James G. Masters, Russell J. Composto
A current effort in preventive dentistry is to inhibit surface attachment of bacteria using antibacterial polymer coatings on the tooth surface. For the antibacterial coatings, the physisorption of anionic and cationic polymers directly onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and saliva-treated HA surfaces was studied using quartz crystal microbalance, force spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. First, single species adsorption is shown to be stronger on HA surfaces than on silicon oxide surfaces for all polymers (i.e., Gantrez, sodium hyaluronate (NaHa), and poly­(allylamine-co-allylguanidinium) (PAA-G75)). It is observed through pH dependence of Gantrez, NaHa, and PAA-G75 adsorption on HA surfaces that anionic polymers swell at high pH and collapse at low pH, whereas cationic polymers behave in the opposite fashion. Thicknesses of Gantrez, NaHa, and PAA-G75 are 52 nm (46 nm), 35 nm (11 nm), and 6 nm (54 nm) at pH 7 (3.5), respectively. Second, absorption of charged polymer is followed by absorption of the oppositely charged polymer. Upon exposure of the anionic polymer layers, Gantrez and NaHa, to the cationic polymer, PAA-G75, films collapse from 52 to 8 nm and 35 to 11 nm, respectively. This decrease in film thickness is attributed to the electrostatic cross-linking between anionic and cationic polymers. Third, for HA surfaces pretreated with artificial saliva (AS), the total thickness decreases from 25 to 16 nm upon exposure to PAA-G75. Force spectroscopy is used to further investigate the PAA-G75/AS coating. The results show that the interaction between a negatively charged colloidal bead and the AS surface is strongly repulsive, whereas PAA-G75/AS is attractive but varies across the surface. Additionally, AFM studies show that AS/HA is smooth with a RMS roughness of 1.7 nm, and PAA-G75-treated AS/HA is rough (RMS roughness of 5.4 nm) with patches of polymer distributed across the surface with an underlying coating. The high roughness of PAA-G75 treated AS/HA is attributed to the strong adsorption of the relatively small PAA-G75 onto the heterogeneously distributed negatively charged AS surface. In addition, uptake of PAA-G75 by pellicle layer (saliva-treated HA surface) is observed, and the adsorbed amount of PAA-G75 on/into pellicle layer is ∼2 times more than that on/into AS layer. These studies show that polymer adsorption onto HA and saliva-coated HA depends strongly on the polymer type and size and that there is an electrostatic interaction between polymer and saliva and/or oppositely charged polymers that stabilizes the coatings on HA. Lastly, assessing the viability of the adherent bacteria collected from the PAA-G75-coated surfaces showed a significant reduction (∼93%) in bacterial viability when compared to bacteria collected from untreated and Gantrez-coated HA. These results suggest the potential antimicrobial activity of PAA-G75.

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