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Comparative Study of Toluidine Blue O and Methylene Blue Binding to Lysozyme and Their Inhibitory Effects on Protein Aggregation

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posted on 2018-03-05, 15:03 authored by Baishakhi Saha, Sourav Chowdhury, Dwipanjan Sanyal, Krishnananda Chattopadhyay, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
A comparative binding interaction of toluidine blue O (TBO) and methylene blue (MB) with lysozyme was investigated by multifaceted biophysical approaches as well as from the aspects of in silico biophysics. The bindings were static, and it occurred via ground-state complex formation as confirmed from time-resolved fluorescence experiments. From steady-state fluorescence and anisotropy, binding constants were calculated, and it was found that TBO binds more effectively than MB. Synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that binding of dyes to lysozyme causes polarity changes around the tryptophan (Trp) moiety, most likely at Trp 62 and 63. Calorimetric titration also depicts the higher binding affinity of TBO over MB, and the interactions were exothermic and entropy-driven. In silico studies revealed the potential binding pockets in lysozyme and the participation of residues Trp 62 and 63 in ligand binding. Furthermore, calculations of thermodynamic parameters from the theoretical docking studies were in compliance with experimental observations. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of these dyes to lysozyme fibrillogenesis was examined, and the morphology of the formed fibril was scanned by atomic force microscopy imaging. TBO was observed to exhibit higher potential in inhibiting the fibrillogenesis than MB, and this phenomenon stands out as a promising antiamyloid therapeutic strategy.

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