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Comparative Account of Biomolecular Changes Post Epstein Barr Virus Infection of the Neuronal and Glial Cells Using Raman Microspectroscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 13.05.2022, 22:07 authored by Omkar Indari, Shweta Jakhmola, Devesh K. Pathak, Manushree Tanwar, Meenakshi Kandpal, Amit Mishra, Rajesh Kumar, Hem Chandra Jha
Raman microspectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopy technique used for investigating molecular fingerprints of a wide range of liquid or solid samples. The technique can be efficiently utilized to understand the virus-mediated cellular changes and could provide valuable insights into specific biomolecular alterations. The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with various types of cancers as well as neurodegenerative diseases. However, EBV-mediated neurological ailments are yet underexplored in terms of biomolecular changes in neuronal and glial cells (astrocytes and microglia). In continuation of our earlier exploration of EBV-influenced glial cells, we tried to decipher biomolecular changes in EBV-infected neuronal cells using Raman microspectroscopy. Additionally, we compared the consecutive biomolecular changes observed in neuronal cells with both the glial cells. We observed that EBV infection gets differentially regulated in the neuronal cells, astrocytes, and microglia. The viral entry and initiation of infection-mediated cellular modulation could start as soon as 2 h post infection but may regulate a distinct biomolecular milieu in different time intervals. Similar to the early timespan, the 24–36 h interval could also be important for EBV to manipulate neuronal as well as glial cells as depicted from elevated biomolecular activities. At these time intervals, some common biomolecules such as proline, glucose, lactic acid, nucleotides, or cholesterol were observed in the cells. However, at these time intervals, some distinct biomolecules were also observed in each cell, such as collagen, lipid, and protein stretches in the neuronal nucleus (2–4 h); tyrosine and RNA in the astrocyte nucleus (2–4 h nucleus); and fatty acids in the microglia nucleus (24–36 h). The observed biomolecular entities could ultimately play pivotal roles in the viral usurpation of cells. We also provided insights into whether these biomolecular changes can be correlated to each other and mediate virus-associated manifestations which can be linked to neurological complications. Our study aids in the understanding of EBV-mediated biomolecular changes in the various compartments of the central nervous system.