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Combining (Non)linear Optical and Fluorescence Analysis of DiD To Enhance Lipid Phase Recognition

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journal contribution
posted on 14.09.2018, 00:00 by Silvio Osella, Florent Di Meo, N. Arul Murugan, Gabin Fabre, Marcel Ameloot, Patrick Trouillas, Stefan Knippenberg
The widespread interest in phase recognition of lipid membranes has led to the use of different optical techniques to enable differentiation of healthy and not fully functional cells. In this work, we show how the combination of different (non)­linear optical methods such as one-photon absorption (OPA), two-photon absorption (TPA), and second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as the study of the fluorescence decay time leads to an enhanced screening of membrane phases using a fluorescent 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiD) probe. In the current study we consider the pure liquid disordered phases of DOPC (dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, room temperature) and DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 323 K), the solid gel phase of DPPC (298 K), and the liquid ordered phase of a 2:1 binary mixture of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. By means of extensive hybrid quantum mechanics–molecular mechanics calculations and based upon the (non)­linear absorption of the embedded probes, it is found that DiD can be used to identify the lipid bilayer phase. The joint TPA and SHG as well as fluorescence analyses qualifies DiD as a versatile probe for phase recognition. In particular, the SHG data obtained by means of hyper-Rayleigh scattering and by electric field induced second harmonic generation reveal differences in polarization of the probe in the different environments. The TPA results finally confirm the particular location of the probe in between the polar headgroup region of the 2:1 SM:Chol mixture in the liquid ordered phase.