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Coiled Conformation Hollow Carbon Nanosphere Cathode and Anode for High Energy Density and Ultrafast Chargeable Hybrid Energy Storage

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journal contribution
posted on 04.04.2022, 17:13 authored by Gi Hwan Kim, Won Ho Choi, Jae Won Choi, Keon-Han Kim, Dong Gyu Park, Min Gyu Park, Min Gyu Kim, Haeseong Jang, Un-Hyuck Kim, Jeung Ku Kang
Lithium-ion batteries and pseudocapacitors are nowadays popular electrochemical energy storage for many applications, but their cathodes and anodes are still limited to accommodate rich redox ions not only for high energy density but also sluggish ion diffusivity and poor electron conductivity, hindering fast recharge. Here, we report a strategy to realize high-capacity/high-rate cathode and anode as a solution to this challenge. Multiporous conductive hollow carbon (HC) nanospheres with microporous shells for high capacity and hollow cores/mesoporous shells for rapid ion transfer are synthesized as cathode materials using quinoid:benzenoid (Q:B) unit resins of coiled conformation, leading to ∼5-fold higher capacities than benzenoid:benzenoid resins of linear conformation. Also, Ge-embedded Q:B HC nanospheres are derived as anode materials. The atomic configuration and energy storage mechanism elucidate the existence of mononuclear GeOx units giving ∼7-fold higher ion diffusivity than bulk Ge while suppressing volume changes during long ion-insertion/desertion cycles. Moreover, hybrid energy storage with a Q:B HC cathode and Ge–Q:B HC anode exploit the advantages of capacitor-type cathode and battery-type anode electrodes, as exhibited by battery-compatible high energy density (up to 285 Wh kg–1) and capacitor-compatible ultrafast rechargeable power density (up to 22 600 W kg–1), affording recharge within a minute.