American Chemical Society
am3c10025_si_001.pdf (3.39 MB)

Circumventing Physicochemical Barriers of Cyclometalated Gold(III) Dithiocarbamate Complexes with Protein-Based Nanoparticle Delivery to Enhance Anticancer Activity

Download (3.39 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-09-11, 17:34 authored by Adedamola S. Arojojoye, Breyanna Walker, James C. Dawahare, Maame Abena O. Afrifa, Sean Parkin, Samuel G. Awuah
Optimizing the bioavailability of drug candidates is crucial to successful drug development campaigns, especially for metal-derived chemotherapeutic agents. Nanoparticle delivery strategies can be deployed to overcome physicochemical limitations associated with drugs to improve bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and minimize toxicity. Biodegradable albumin nanoconstructs offer pragmatic solutions for drug delivery of metallodrugs with translational benefits in the clinic. In this work, we explored a logical approach to investigate and resolve the physicochemical drawbacks of gold­(III) complexes with albumin nanoparticle delivery to improve solubility, enhance intracellular accumulation, circumvent premature deactivation, and enhance anticancer activity. We synthesized and characterized stable gold­(III) dithiocarbamate complexes with a variable degree of cyclometalation such as phenylpyridine (C^N) or biphenyl (C^C) Au­(III) framework and different alkyl chain lengths. We noted that extended alkyl chain lengths impaired the solubility of these complexes in biological media, thus adversely impacting potency. Encapsulation of these complexes in bovine serum albumin (BSA) reversed solubility limitations and improved cancer cytotoxicity by ∼25-fold. Further speciation and mechanism of action studies demonstrate the stability of the compounds and alteration of mitochondria bioenergetics, respectively. We postulate that this nanodelivery strategy is a relevant approach for translational small-molecule gold drug delivery.