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Characterization of the Binding of Isoniazid and Analogues to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Catalase-Peroxidase

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journal contribution
posted on 20.03.2007, 00:00 authored by Xiangbo Zhao, Shengwei Yu, Richard S. Magliozzo
The first-line antituberculosis drug isonicotinic hydrazide (INH) is a prodrug whose bactericidal function requires activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) to produce an acyl-NAD adduct. Peroxidation of INH is considered a required catalytic process for drug action. The binding of INH and a series of hydrazide analogues to resting KatG was examined using optical and calorimetric techniques to provide thermodynamic parameters, binding stoichiometries, and kinetic constants (on and off rates). This work revealed high-affinity binding of these substrates to a small fraction of ferric enzyme in a six-coordinate heme iron form, a species most likely containing a weakly bound water molecule, which accumulates during storage of the enzyme. The binding of hydrazides is associated with a large enthalpy loss (>100 kcal/mol); dissociation constants are in the range of 0.05−1.6 μM, and optical stopped-flow measurements demonstrated kon values in the range of 0.5−27 × 103 M-1 s-1 with very small koff rates. Binding parameters did not depend on pH in the range 5−8. High-affinity binding of INH is disrupted in two mutant enzymes bearing replacements of key distal side residues, KatG[W107F] and KatG[Y229F]. The rates of reduction of KatG Compound I by hydrazides parallel the on rates for association with the resting enzyme. In a KatG-mediated biomimetic activation assay, only isoniazid generated in good yield the acyl-NAD adduct which is considered a key molecule in INH action, providing a better understanding of the action mechanism of INH.