American Chemical Society
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Characterization of Dual-Acting A3 Adenosine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators That Preferentially Enhance Adenosine-Induced Gαi3 and GαoA Isoprotein Activation

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-07-15, 18:04 authored by Courtney L. Fisher, Lucas B. Fallot, Tina C. Wan, Robert F. Keyes, R. Rama Suresh, Amy C. Rothwell, Zhan-Guo Gao, John D. McCorvy, Brian C. Smith, Kenneth A. Jacobson, John A. Auchampach
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is a promising therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases, cancer, and chronic neuropathic pain, with agonists already in advanced clinical trials. Here we report an in-depth comparison of the pharmacological properties and structure–activity relationships of existing and expanded compound libraries of 2-substituted 1H-imidazo­[4,5-c]­quinolin-4-amine and 4-amino-substituted quinoline derivatives that function as A3AR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). We also show that our lead compound from each series enhances adenosine-induced A3AR signaling preferentially toward activation of Gαi3 and GαoA isoproteins, which are coexpressed with the A3AR in immune cells and spinal cord neurons. Finally, utilizing an extracellular/intracellular chimeric A3AR approach composed of sequences from a responding (human) and a nonresponding (mouse) species, we provide evidence in support of the idea that the imidazoquinolin-4-amine class of PAMs variably interacts dually with the orthosteric ligand binding site as well as with a separate allosteric site located within the inner/intracellular regions of the receptor. This study has advanced both structural and pharmacological understanding of these two classes of A3AR PAMs, which includes leads for future pharmaceutical development.