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Characterization and Solution Properties of Quaternary-Ammonium-Salt-Type Amphiphilic Gemini Ionic Liquids

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journal contribution
posted on 20.08.2019, 14:38 by Risa Kawai, Shiho Yada, Tomokazu Yoshimura
Quaternary-ammonium-salt-type amphiphilic gemini compounds (Cm-2-Cn X, where m and n represent the alkyl chain lengths; m = 4, 6, 8, 10; n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10; mn; and X indicates the counterion BF4, PF6, OTf, FSA, or NTf2) were synthesized by the quaternization of N,N,N′,N-tetramethylethylenediamine and n-alkyl bromide and a subsequent ion-exchange reaction with five different counterions. For comparison, the corresponding monomeric compounds (Cn X, n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) were also synthesized. The melting points of the compounds were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, and those with melting points lower than 100 °C were treated as ionic liquids during the subsequent measurements. The amphiphilic gemini compounds exhibited the lowest melting points (44–49 °C) when bulky NTf2 was the counterion and the degree of dissymmetry between the two alkyl chains was 0.4 < n/m < 0.75. However, their melting points were not similar to those of the monomeric compounds with NTf2 and n = 4–10 (<29 °C). The gemini ionic liquids exhibited significantly lower conductivities and higher viscosities than those of the corresponding monomeric ionic liquids. This is because of the decrease in the mobility of the cation molecules caused by the gemini structure, in which the two monomeric compounds are connected by a spacer. The gemini ionic liquids also showed higher densities than those of the corresponding monomeric ionic liquids, owing to the dimer of the gemini structure. Further, the gemini ionic liquids were adsorbed readily at the air/water interface and oriented themselves but did not show the critical micelle concentration for the concentration range over which they could be dissolved in water. The amphiphilic monomeric and gemini ionic liquids also tended to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions, as the length of their alkyl chain was relatively short.