Characterization and Photodegradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Car Seat Fabrics from End-of-Life Vehicles
journal contributionposted on 20.12.2017, 00:00 by Amina Khaled, Claire Richard, Lisa Redin, Mirva Niinipuu, Stina Jansson, Farouk Jaber, Mohamad Sleiman
In this study, we examined the photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the surface of car seat covers from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Samples were collected at two car dismantling facilities in Sweden and cover car models from 1989 to 1998. The content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in nine real samples (fabric and polyurethane foam) was first characterized. Fabric samples that did not contain BDE-209 were then spiked with BDE-209 and irradiated in the laboratory and under sunlight. Photoproducts were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS), whereas volatile products were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Similar photodegradation rates and oxidation products were observed in fabric samples irradiated in the laboratory and those collected from ELVs. Estimated half-life of BDE-209 on fabric inside vehicles ranged from 3 to 6 years. Thirteen major photoproducts were identified as lower brominated products, hydroxylated BDEs, brominated and hydroxylated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and dioxins (PBDDs). Furthermore, several photoproducts were found to be transferable into water, particularly bromophenols and hydroxylated BDEs, and others into gas phase, such as bromomethanol and 1,2-dibromoethane. This should be taken into consideration for better estimating exposure to PBDEs and to develop strategies for ELV recycling.