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Carbonate Radical Oxidation of Cylindrospermopsin (Cyanotoxin): Kinetic Studies and Mechanistic Consideration

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journal contribution
posted on 30.07.2020, 17:09 by Zhenyu Hao, Jianzhong Ma, Chenyong Miao, Yue Song, Lushi Lian, Shuwen Yan, Weihua Song
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is one of the most important cyanobacterial toxins frequently found in surface waters. We reported the detailed kinetics and pathways for the reaction of CYN with carbonate radicals (CO3•–). The rate constants of neutral and deprotonated CYN with CO3•– were found to be (1.2 ± 0.7) × 107 M–1 s–1 and (3.0 ± 0.4) × 108 M–1 s–1, respectively. The transformation products for the oxidation of CYN by CO3•– were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry, illustrating that the guanidine and bridged hydroxyl portions were the primary moieties attacked by CO3•–. Thus, three transformation pathways, including cleavage of the hydroxymethyluracil moiety, hydroxylation, and oxidation of the bridged hydroxyl group, are proposed for the CO3•– oxidation of CYN. Moreover, this study reported that dissolved organic matter (DOM) reduced the transformation rate of CYN by inhibiting the transformation of oxidation intermediates. Finally, the role of CO3•– in CYN degradation was estimated in both sunlit surface waters and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), demonstrating that CO3•– played an important role in CYN attenuation under nonacidic environmentally relevant conditions. The kinetic parameters and product information obtained in this study will be of considerable interest for the application of AOPs and predicting the environmental fate of CYN.