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CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Phosphate and Sulfate Linked to Carbohydrates

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journal contribution
posted on 14.02.2012, 00:00 by Sairam S. Mallajosyula, Olgun Guvench, Elizabeth Hatcher, Alexander D. MacKerell
Presented is an extension of the CHARMM additive all-atom carbohydrate force field to enable the modeling of phosphate and sulfate linked to carbohydrates. The parameters are developed in a hierarchical fashion using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates. Target data for parameter optimization included full two-dimensional energy surfaces defined by the glycosidic dihedral angle pairs in the phosphate/sulfate model compound analogs of hexopyranose monosaccharide phosphates and sulfates, as determined by quantum mechanical (QM) MP2/cc-pVTZ single point energies on MP2/6-31+G­(d) optimized structures. In order to achieve balanced, transferable dihedral parameters for the dihedral angles, surfaces for all possible anomeric and conformational states were included during the parametrization process. In addition, to model physiologically relevant systems, both the mono- and dianionic charged states were studied for the phosphates. This resulted in over 7000 MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G+(d) model compound conformational energies which, supplemented with QM geometries, were the main target data for the parametrization. Parameters were validated against crystals of relevant monosaccharide derivatives obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and larger systems, namely inositol-(tri/tetra/penta) phosphates noncovalently bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and oligomeric chondroitin sulfate in solution and in complex with cathepsin K protein.