American Chemical Society
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Building Flame-Retardant Polymer Electrolytes via Microcapsule Technology for Stable Lithium Batteries

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-05-14, 13:49 authored by Chao Zhang, Caixia Li, Kai Zhang, Shenghao Zhang, Jingwen Liu, Minghui Wang, Lei Wang
Flame retardants could improve the safety properties of lithium batteries (LBs) with the sacrifice of electrochemical performance due to parasitic reactions. To concur with this, we designed thermal-response clothes for hexachlorophosphazene (HCP) additives by the microcapsule technique with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin as the shell. HCP@UF combines with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) by hydrogen bonds successfully to form PAN–HCP@UF as the flame-retardant solid polymer electrolyte. The hydrogen bonds ensure excellent mechanical properties of the polymer electrolyte. The multiscale free radical-annihilating agent HCP effectively eliminates hydrogen free radicals of electrolytes under high temperature, showing excellent flame retardation. During the operation of the battery, functional groups on the UF resin act as active sites to promote the migration of lithium ions, while the internal HCP is protected from electrochemical reaction. With 25% HCP@UF addition, the limiting oxygen index of the PAN–HCP@UF increases to 28% and the Li+ transfer number up to 0.80. By UF protection, the initial capacity retention rate of the Li||LFP battery that assembles with PAN–HCP@UF is 88.8% after 500 cycles at 0.5 C. Thus, the microcapsule-encapsulated approach is deemed to provide an innovative strategy to prepare high-safety solid-state LB with a stable long cycle life.