Biotransformation of the UV-Filter Sulisobenzone: Challenges for the Identification of Transformation Products
journal contributionposted on 02.07.2013, 00:00 by Rita Beel, Christian Lütke Eversloh, Thomas A. Ternes
The UV-filter substance Sulisobenzone (BP-4) is widely employed in sunscreens and other personal care products. In the current study, its behavior during biological wastewater treatment was investigated. In contact with activated sludge BP-4 was degraded in aerobic batch experiments forming at least nine transformation products (TPs). The mass balance in the batch experiments was closed, as measurements with LC-UV underlined that the quantity of the TPs was comparable to the BP-4 quantity transformed. The chemical structures of the nine TPs could be proposed based on accurate mass measurements by high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS), several fragmentation experiments up to MS6 and synthesis of one TP. NMR analyses of the main TP confirmed its proposed chemical structure. At the beginning of the biotransformation of BP-4, a benzhydrol analogue was formed due to the reduction of the keto moiety. Further reactions (e.g., oxidation, demethylation, decarboxylation) led to the formation of extremely polar TPs. A biodegradation pathway was proposed based on the TP structures identified and the sequence of the TP formation. The isolated TPs exhibited higher toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri than BP-4. The results contribute to a better general understanding and prediction of the biotransformation of aromatic sulfonic acids in WWTPs.