Asymmetric Heteroleptic Ir(III) Phosphorescent Complexes with Aromatic Selenide and Selenophene Groups: Synthesis and Photophysical, Electrochemical, and Electrophosphorescent Behaviors
journal contributionposted on 21.08.2018, 12:50 by Zhao Feng, Dezhi Wang, Xiaolong Yang, Deyuan Jin, Daokun Zhong, Boao Liu, Guijiang Zhou, Miaofeng Ma, Zhaoxin Wu
With the aim of evaluating the potential of selenium-containing groups in developing electroluminescent (EL) materials, a series of asymmetric heteroleptic Ir(III) phosphorescent complexes (Ir-Se0F, Ir-Se1F, Ir-Se2F, and Ir-Se3F) have been synthesized by using 2-selenophenylpyridine and one ppy-type (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) ligand with a fluorinated selenide group. To the best of our knowledge, these complexes represent unprecedented examples of asymmetric heteroleptic Ir(III) phosphorescent emitters bearing selenium-containing groups. Natural transition orbital (NTO) analysis based on optimized geometries of the first triplet state (T1) have shown that the phosphorescent emissions of these Ir(III) complexes dominantly show 3π–π* features of the 2-selenophenylpyridine ligand with slight metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) contribution. In comparison with their symmetric parent complex Ir-Se with two 2-selenophenylpyridine ligands, these asymmetric heteroleptic Ir(III) phosphorescent complexes can show much higher phosphorescent quantum yields (ΦP) of ca. 0.90. Both the hole- and electron-trapping ability of these Ir(III) phosphorescent complexes can be enhanced by selenophene and fluorinated selenide groups to improve their EL efficiencies. The EL abilities of these asymmetric heteroleptic Ir(III) phosphorescent emitters fall in the order Ir-Se3F > Ir-Se2F > Ir-Se1F > Ir-Se0F. The highest EL efficiencies have been achieved by Ir-Se3F in the solution-processed OLEDs with external quantum efficiency (ηext), current efficiency (ηL), and power efficiency (ηP) of 19.9%, 65.6 cd A–1, and 57.3 lm W–1, respectively. These encouraging EL results clearly indicate the great potential of selenium-containing groups in developing high-performance Ir(III) phosphorescent emitters.