Arylboronic Acids and Arylpinacolboronate Esters in Suzuki Coupling Reactions Involving Indoles. Partner Role Swapping and Heterocycle Protection
journal contributionposted on 01.10.2004, 00:00 by Mònica Prieto, Esther Zurita, Esmeralda Rosa, Lourdes Muñoz, Paul Lloyd-Williams, Ernest Giralt
Yields of Suzuki couplings involving indoles depended upon (i) whether arylboronic acids or arylpinacolboronate esters were used, (ii) whether the heterocycle was the aryl halide or the arylboron coupling partner, and (iii) whether the heterocycle was protected or not. Highest yields, which were unaffected by incorporating Boc or Tos protection at the heterocyclic nitrogen, were obtained when indole bromides were reacted with phenylboronic acids. When indolylboronic acids were reacted with phenyl bromides, yields were somewhat lower and depended on the nitrogen substituent, being highest in the absence of protection, lower in the presence of the Boc group, and lowest of all with the Tos group. Arylpinacolboronate esters were less reactive than arylboronic acids. They required considerably longer reaction times and furnished generally lower yields of biaryl. Furthermore, irrespective of whether the heterocycle was the aryl bromide or the arylpinacolboronate ester, these yields were highest when it was protected with the Tos group. Yields were lower with the Boc group, and unprotected heterocycles gave only traces of biaryl. Careful selection of arylboron reagent, of coupling partner roles, and of protecting groups are essential to ensuring optimum results in these Suzuki couplings. These results may also be relevant to couplings involving other substrates.