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Application of Solid-Phase Microextraction for In Vivo Laboratory and Field Sampling of Pharmaceuticals in Fish

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journal contribution
posted on 15.08.2008, 00:00 by Simon Ningsun Zhou, Ken D. Oakes, Mark R. Servos, Janusz Pawliszyn
Previous field studies utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) predominantly focused on volatile and semivolatile compounds in air or water. Earlier in vivo sampling studies utilizing SPME were limited to the liquid matrix (blood). The present study has expanded the SPME technique to semisolid tissues under laboratory and field conditions through the investigation of both theoretical and applied experimental approaches. Pre-equilibrium extraction and desorption were performed in vivo in two separate animals. Excellent linearity was found between the amounts extracted by SPME from the muscle of living fish and the waterborne concentrations of pharmaceuticals. A simple SPME method is also described to simultaneously determine free and total analyte concentrations in living tissue. The utility of in vivo SPME sampling was evaluated in wild fish collected from a number of different river locations under varying degrees of influence from municipal wastewater effluents. Diphenhydramine and diltiazem were detected in the muscle of fish downstream of a local wastewater treatment plant. Based on this study, SPME demonstrated several important advantages such as simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness under laboratory and in vivo field sampling conditions.