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Analysis of the Components of Hard Resin in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and Structural Elucidation of Their Transformation Products Formed during the Brewing Process

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posted on 26.11.2014, 00:00 by Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Harumi Taniguchi, Makiko Yamada, Yasuko Matsukura, Hideki Koizumi, Kazuo Furihata, Kazutoshi Shindo
The resins from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which add the bitter taste to beer, are classified into two main sub-fractions, namely, soft and hard resins. α- and β-Acids in soft resin and their transformation during the wort boiling process are well-studied; however, other constituents in resins, especially hard resin, have been unidentified. In this study, we identified humulinones and hulupones as soft-resin components, in addition to 4′-hydroxyallohumulinones and tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B as hard-resin components. These compounds are all oxidation products derived from α- or β-acids. We also investigated compositional changes in the hard resin during the wort boiling process, which has a significant effect on the taste of the beer, by using model boiling experiments. The major changes were identified to be isomerization of 4′-hydroxyallohumulinones into 4′-hydroxyallo-cis-humulinones, followed by decomposition into cis-oxyhumulinic acids. These findings will be helpful in systematically evaluating and optimizing the effect of the hard resin on beer quality.