An Old but Simple and Efficient Method to Elucidate the Oxidation Mechanism of NAD(P)H Model 1-Aryl-1,4-dihydronicotinamides by Cations 2-Methyl-5-nitroisoquinolium, Tropylium, and Xanthylium in Aqueous Solution
journal contributionposted on 30.12.2000, 00:00 by Xiao-Qing Zhu, Yang Liu, Bing-Jun Zhao, Jin-Pei Cheng
Cations 2-methyl-5-nitroisoquinolinium (IQ+), tropylium (T+), and xanthylium (Xn+) were treated by an NAD(P)H model 1-(p-substituted phenyl)-1.4-dihydronicotinamide series (1) in buffered aqueous solution to give the corresponding reduced products by accepting hydride. Effects of the 4-substituents of 1 on the reaction rates were investigated. Hammett's linear free energy relationship analysis on the three reactions of 1 provides the reaction constants of −0.48, −2.2, and −1.4 with IQ+, T+, and Xn+ as the hydride acceptors, respectively. Comparison of the present reactions with the reaction examples whose mechanisms are well-known, such as the reaction of 1 with a one-electron oxidant Fe(CN)6-3, shows that the active site of 1 in the oxidation with IQ+ is at the 4-position on the dihydropyridine ring but that the active site of 1 in the oxidations with T+ and Xn+ is at the 1-position, which is in agreement with the results from the Brønsted-type linear analysis and the relation studies of the logarithm of the second-order rate constants with the oxidation potentials of the hydride donors. According to the dependence of the reaction mechanism on the active site of 1, a conclusion can be made that the reaction of 1 with IQ+ proceeds by direct one-step hydride transfer mechanism, but the reactions of 1 with T+ and Xn+ would take place via multistep hydride transfer mechanism initiated by one-electron transfer.
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NADreaction constantsmultistep hydride transfer mechanismreaction rateshydride acceptorsreaction mechanismrelation studiesOxidation MechanismBr ønstedoxidation potentialsrate constantsEfficient Methodenergy relationship analysisXnhydride donorsreaction examplesIQhydride transfer mechanismdihydropyridine ring