Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by in Situ Generated Gold Nanoparticles inside the Channels of Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica with Ionic Liquid Framework
journal contributionposted on 2020-01-27, 19:41 authored by Babak Karimi, Akram Bigdeli, Ali Asghar Safari, Mojtaba Khorasani, Hojatollah Vali, Somaiyeh Khodadadi Karimvand
In situ generated gold nanoparticles inside the nanospaces of periodic mesoporous organosilica with an imidazolium framework (Au@PMO-IL) were found to be highly active, selective, and reusable catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of activated and nonactivated alcohols under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst was characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis (EA), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the presence of either Cs2CO3 (35 °C) or K2CO3 (60 °C) as reaction bases in toluene as a reaction solvent. Under both reaction conditions, various types of alcohols (up to 35 examples) including activated benzylic, primary and secondary aliphatic, heterocyclic, and challenging cyclic aliphatic alcohols converted to the expected carbonyl compounds in good to excellent yields and selectivity. The catalyst was also recovered and reused for at least seven reaction cycles. Data from three independent leaching tests indicated that amounts of leached gold particles were negligible (<0.2 ppm). It is believed that the combination of bridged imidazolium groups and confined nanospaces of PMO-IL might be a major reason explaining the remarkable stabilization and homogeneous distribution of in situ generated gold nanoparticles, thus resulting in the highly active and recyclable catalyst system.