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Acid–Base Interactions of Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid in Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using a Combined UV/FTIR/XPS/ssNMR Study

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journal contribution
posted on 01.02.2016, 00:00 by Yang Song, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Xin Chen, Haichen Nie, Ziyang Su, Ke Fang, Xinghao Yang, Daniel Smith, Stephen Byrn, Joseph W. Lubach
This study investigates the potential drug–excipient interactions of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) and two weakly basic anticancer drugs, lapatinib (LB) and gefitinib (GB), in amorphous solid dispersions. Based on the strong acidity of the sulfonic acid functional group, PSSA was hypothesized to exhibit specific intermolecular acid–base interactions with both model basic drugs. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy identified red shifts, which correlated well with the color change observed in lapatinib–PSSA solutions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggest the protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atom in both model compounds, which agrees well with data from the crystalline ditosylate salt of lapatinib. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) detected increases in binding energy of the basic nitrogen atoms in both lapatinib and gefitinib, strongly indicating protonation of these nitrogen atoms. 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy provided direct spectroscopic evidence for protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atoms in both LB and GB, as well as the secondary amine nitrogen atom in LB and the tertiary amine nitrogen atom in GB. The observed chemical shifts in the LB–PSSA 15N spectrum also agree very well with the lapatinib ditosylate salt where proton transfer is known. Additionally, the dissolution and physical stability behaviors of both amorphous solid dispersions were examined. PSSA was found to significantly improve the dissolution of LB and GB and effectively inhibit the crystallization of LB and GB under accelerated storage conditions due to the beneficial strong intermolecular acid–base interaction between the sulfonic acid groups and basic nitrogen centers.