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Achieving Reproducible and High-Efficiency (>21%) Perovskite Solar Cells with a Presynthesized FAPbI3 Powder

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journal contribution
posted on 08.01.2020, 13:41 by Yong Zhang, Seongrok Seo, Soo Yeon Lim, Younghoon Kim, Seul-Gi Kim, Do-Kyoung Lee, Sun-Ho Lee, Hyunjung Shin, Hyeonsik Cheong, Nam-Gyu Park
The conventional precursor mixture based on highly pure and expensive PbI2 (purity >99.99%) is problematic in commercializing perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of a large deviation in the batch-to-batch photovoltaic performance due to underlying nonstoichiometry and/or the nonperovskite phase. Here, we report on reproducibly efficient (>21%) PSCs based on the ambient-temperature-stable δ-phase FAPbI3 powder, synthesized by reacting PbI2 (either homemade or low-grade commercial product with purity <99%) with formamidinium iodide (FAI) at room temperature (∼93% yield). X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that annealing the spin-coated film leads to phase purity of cubic α FAPbI3. As compared to the conventional precursor mixture based on PbI2 (purity = 99.9985%), significantly reducing defects in the powder-based film is responsible for the stable and reproducible efficiency. In addition, the homogeneous light-intensity-dependent surface photocurrent contributes to the reproducibility of photovoltaic performance. The quasi-steady-state power conversion efficiency of 21.07% is certified for the device based on FAPbI3 powder.