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Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids

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journal contribution
posted on 11.10.2016, 00:00 by Hsin-Che Lu, Sheng-Yuan Kao, Hsin-Fu Yu, Ting-Hsiang Chang, Chung-Wei Kung, Kuo-Chuan Ho
Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV­(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV­(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV­(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (ΔT = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (ΔT = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis­(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)­imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV­(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV­(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV­(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (ΔT = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (ΔT = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial ΔT).