Accumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Hexabromobenzene, and 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane in Earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Effects of Soil Type and Aging
journal contributionposted on 01.12.2010, 00:00 by Jenny Rattfelt Nyholm, Robert Kumah Asamoah, Leon van der Wal, Conny Danielsson, Patrik L. Andersson
In the present study the accumulation potentials in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated. The tested BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), were found to be bioavailable to Eisenia fetida, and they accumulated in the earthworms. To our knowledge, this is the first published study to address the bioaccumulation potential of TBECH in terrestrial biota. Aging the soil resulted in decreased accumulation of TBECH, HBB, and PBDEs with six or less bromine atoms. However, no effect of soil aging was seen for BDEs 183 or 209, possibly due to their low mobility in soil. The use of different soils (artificial OECD soil and two natural Swedish soils) also affected the degree of accumulation in the worms. The results indicate that use of the generally accepted standard OECD soil may overestimate accumulation of organic contaminants by earthworms, due to high bioavailability of the contaminants and/or weight loss of the worms in it. Further, the accumulation of selected PBDEs and HBB was compared to the accumulation of their chlorinated analogues. Brominated compounds accumulated to the same or a lesser extent than their chlorinated counterparts.