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A Versatile Carbonic Anhydrase IX Targeting Ligand-Functionalized Porous Silicon Nanoplatform for Dual Hypoxia Cancer Therapy and Imaging

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journal contribution
posted on 06.04.2017, 00:00 by Agne Janoniene, Zehua Liu, Lina Baranauskiene, Ermei Mäkilä, Ming Ma, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Hongbo Zhang, Vilma Petrikaite, Hélder A. Santos
Hypoxia occurs in most solid tumors, and it has been shown to be an independent prognostic indicator of a poor clinical outcome for patients with various cancers. Therefore, constructing a nanosystem specifically targeting cancer cells under hypoxia conditions is a promising approach for cancer therapy. Herein, we develop a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanosystem for targeted cancer therapy. VD11-4-2, a novel inhibitor for carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), is anchored on PSi particles (VD-PSi). As CA IX is mainly expressed on the cancer cell membrane under hypoxia condition, this nanocomplex inherits a strong affinity toward hypoxic human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells; thus, a better killing efficiency for the hypoxia-induced drug resistance cancer cell is observed. Furthermore, the release of doxorubicin (DOX) from VD-PSi showed pH dependence, which is possibly due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between DOX and VD11-4-2. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer effect between DOX and VD11-4-2 is observed and applied for monitoring the DOX release intracellularly. Protein inhibition and binding assays showed that VD-PSi binds and inhibits CA IX. Overall, we developed a novel nanosystem inheriting several advantageous properties, which has great potential for targeted treatment of cancer cells under hypoxic conditions.