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A Search for Natural Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvents Based on Natural Components

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journal contribution
posted on 02.01.2019, 00:00 by Dannie J. G. P. van Osch, Carin H. J. T. Dietz, Jaap van Spronsen, Maaike C. Kroon, Fausto Gallucci, Martin van Sint Annaland, Remco Tuinier
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on terpenes are identified and characterized. 507 combinations of solid components are tested, which results in the identification of 17 new hydrophobic DESs. Four criteria are introduced to assess the sustainability of these hydrophobic DESs from a chemical engineering point of view. These criteria include a viscosity smaller than 100 mPa·s, a density difference between DES and water of at least 50 kg·m–3 upon mixing of the DES and water, low transfer of the DES to the water phase and minor to no pH change. The results show that five new hydrophobic DESs based on natural components satisfy these criteria; thymol and coumarin (2:1), thymol and menthol (1:1), thymol and coumarin (1:1), thymol and menthol (1:2) and 1-tetradecanol and menthol (1:2), and thus are promising DESs. These new DESs can be considered as natural deep eutectic solvents, which have the potential to be environmentally friendly. A selected group of the hydrophobic DESs were used for the extraction of riboflavin from water. They all show higher removal of riboflavin in comparison to decanoic acid:tetraoctylammonium bromide (2:1). The highest extraction efficiency of riboflavin from water, 81.1%, was achieved with the hydrophobic DES DecA:Lid (2:1).