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A Proteogenomic Resource Enabling Integrated Analysis of Listeria Genotype–Proteotype–Phenotype Relationships

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journal contribution
posted on 06.03.2020, 18:05 by Adithi R. Varadarajan, Sandra Goetze, Maria P. Pavlou, Virginie Grosboillot, Yang Shen, Martin J. Loessner, Christian H. Ahrens, Bernd Wollscheid
Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis, a potentially fatal foodborne disease. Many different Listeria strains and serotypes exist, but a proteogenomic resource that bridges the gap in our molecular understanding of the relationships between the Listeria genotypes and phenotypes via proteotypes is still missing. Here, we devised a next-generation proteogenomics strategy that enables the community to rapidly proteotype Listeria strains and relate this information back to the genotype. Based on sequencing and de novo assembly of the two most commonly used Listeria model strains, EGD-e and ScottA, we established two comprehensive Listeria proteogenomic databases. A genome comparison established core- and strain-specific genes potentially responsible for virulence differences. Next, we established a DIA/SWATH-based proteotyping strategy, including a new and robust sample preparation workflow, that enables the reproducible, sensitive, and relative quantitative measurement of Listeria proteotypes. This reusable and publicly available DIA/SWATH library covers 70% of open reading frames of Listeria and represents the most extensive spectral library for Listeria proteotype analysis to date. We used these two new resources to investigate the Listeria proteotype in states mimicking the upper gastrointestinal passage. Exposure of Listeria to bile salts at 37 °C, which simulates conditions encountered in the duodenum, showed significant proteotype perturbations including an increase of FlaA, the structural protein of flagella. Given that Listeria is known to lose its flagella above 30 °C, this was an unexpected finding. The formation of flagella, which might have implications on infectivity, was validated by parallel reaction monitoring and light and scanning electron microscopy. flaA transcript levels did not change significantly upon exposure to bile salts at 37 °C, suggesting regulation at the post-transcriptional level. Together, these analyses provide a comprehensive proteogenomic resource and toolbox for the Listeria community enabling the analysis of Listeria genotype–proteotype–phenotype relationships.